Research to Date

There is an extensive list of research linking Irlen Syndrome / SSS to difficulties in the areas of Reading, Learning, Concentration and Behaviour. The following research also highlights Irlen Syndrome's /SSS's links to Headaches, Migraines, Eye Strain, Fatigue and Depth Perception Difficulties.

Adler, L., & Attwood, M. (1987).  Poor Readers: what do they really see on the page?  A study of a major cause of dyslexia.  Los Angeles CA:  Los Angeles County Office of Education.

Allen, P., Dedi, S., Kumar, D., Patel, T., Aloo, M., & Wilkins, A. (2012). Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays. Perception, volume 41, pages 0000 – 0000. 

Allen, P., Evans, B., & Wilkins, A. (2012). The uses of colour in optometric practice to ameliorate symptoms of visual stress. Optometry in Practice 2012 Volume 13 Issue 1, pp. 1 – 8.

Allen, P.M. Gilchrist, J.M. ; Hollis, J. (2008). Use of visual search in the assessment of pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) and its alleviation by coloured filters. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(9), Pages 4210-4218.

Allen, P.M.,  Hussain, A., Usherwood, C., & Wilkins, A.J. (2010). Pattern-related visual stress, chromaticity, and accommodation. Investigative  Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(12), Pages 6843-6849.

Anstice, J. (2000).  Eye movements: Their importance for reading and some of the factors that disrupt them.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia, 5-8 July.

American Music Teacher (1996, June/July) Dyslexia or Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome? The Official Journal of Music Teachers National Association.  16-17.


Barbolini, G., Caffo, E., Robinson, G.L., & Wright, A. (1998).  Light sensitivity and some pervasive developmental disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder.  Modena International Conference on Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.  Univer. Of Modena, Italy, 26-27 March.

Barbolini, G., Lazzerini, A., Pini, L.A., Steiner, F., Del Vecchio, G., Migaldi, M., Cavalllini, G.M. (2009).Malfunctioning cones and remedial tinted filters.  Ophta, 2/209, 101-105.

Barbolini, G., Migaldi, M., Wright, A., & Irlen, H. (1996).  A biological and medical approach to remedial chromotherapy.  Irlen Institute, Fourth International Directors/Screeners Conference, June 27-30, New Orleans, LA.

Barbolini, G., Wright, A., Migaldi. M., & Irlen, H. (1996).  A biological approach to remedial chromotherapy.  Published in the form of a booklet.  Available from: Irlen Centre East, 4 Park Farm Business Centre, Fornham St. Genevieve Bury St. Edmunds Suffolk IP28 6TS, UK.

Beasley, I.G., & Davies, L.N. (2013). Visual stress symptoms secondary to stroke alleviated with spectral filters and precision tinted ophthalmic lenses: a case report. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 96(1), 117–120.

Beasley, I.G., & Davies, L.N. (2012). Susceptibility to pattern glare following stroke. Journal of Neurology, 259(9), 1832-9.

Black, H. (1999).  Emily’s violet-coloured glasses.  Woman’s World, Oct. 19, 1999, 43.

Blakeslee, Sandra. (1991, September 15).  Study Ties Dyslexia to Brain Flaw Affecting Vision and Other Senses.  The New York Times.

Blaskey, P., Sheiman, M., Parisi, M., Ciner, E.B., Gallaway, M., & Selznick, R. (1990).  The Effectiveness of Irlen Filters for improved reading performance:  A pilot study.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 604-612.

Borsting, E., Chase, C., Tosha, C., & Ridder, W.H. (2008) Longitudinal Study of Visual Discomfort Symptoms in College Students. Optometry and Vision Science, 85(10), Pages 992-998.

Borsting, E., Ridder, W.H., Dudeck, K., Kelley, C., Matsuir, L., & Motoyama, J. (1996).  The presence of a magnocellular defect depends on the type of dyslexia.  Vision Research, 36, 1047-1053.

Bouldoukian, J., Wilkins, A.J., & Evans, Bruce J.W. (2002).  Randomised controlled trial of the effect of coloured overlays on the rate of reading of people with specific learning difficulties.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 55-60.

Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1977).  Foveal and parfoveal recognition of letters and words by dyslexics and by average readers.  Neuropsycholgica, 15, 69-80.

Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1980).  Dyslexia: A specific recoding deficit?  An analysis of response latencies for letters and words in dyslexics and average readers.  Neuropsychologica, 18, 285-298.

Boyle, C., & Jindal-Snape, D. (2012). Visual-perceptual difficulties and the impact on children’s learning: are teachers missing the page? Support for Learning, 27 (4), 166–171.

Brannan, J.R., & Williams, M.C. (1988).  Developmental versus sensory deficit effects on perceptual processing in the reading disabled.  Perception and Psychophysics, 44, 437-444.

Breitmeyer, B. (1980).  Unmasking visual masking: a look at the “why” behind the veil of the “how”. Psychology Review, 87, 52-69.

Breitmeyer, B.G. (1989).  A visually based deficit in specific reading disability.  The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10, 534-541.

Breitmeyer, B.G. (1993).  Sustained (P) and transient (M) channels in vision: a review and implications for reading. In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Corcos (Eds.), Visual processes in reading and reading disabilities.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  95-110.

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Breier, J.I. (1994).  Effects of background colour on reaction time to stimuli varying in size and contrast: inferences about human M channels.  Vision Research, 34, 1039-1045.

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Ogmen, H. (2000).  Recent models and findings in visual backward masking: a comparison, review, and update.  Perception & Psychophysics, 62(8) 1572-1595.

Breitmeyer, B.F., & Williams, M.C. (1990).  Effects of isoluminant-background colour on metacontrast and stroboscopic motion: Interactions between sustained (P) and transient (M) channels.  Vision Research, 30(7) 1069-7052

Bruck, M. (1990).  Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26. 430-454.

Bulmer, J. (1994). Sensory overload and general well being: Can adults be helped by using Irlen lenses?  Unpublished honors thesis, Chester College of Higher Education, Chester, UK.

Burgess, J. (1990).  Long term evaluation of the effect of Irlen tinted lenses on academic and related skills.  Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis.  University of Canberra, Belconnen A.C.T.


Canino, F.J. (1981).  Learned helplessness theory: Implications for research in learning disabilities.  The Journal of Special Education, 15, 471-484.

Cardona, G., Borràs, R., Peris, E., & Castañé, M. (2010) A placebo-controlled trial of tinted lenses in adolescents with good and poor academic performance: reading accuracy and speed. Journal of Optometry, 3(2), Pages 94-101. 

Carlile, C. (1997). Scotopic sensitivity syndrome sheds new light on reading disability.  Texas Reading Report, 19(4), 1-13.

Carmean, S., & Irlen, H.L.  The relationship of Irlen reading filter hues and contrast sensitivity.  Unpublished manuscript.

Casanova, C. (2003). The visual functions of the pulvinar. In Chalupa, L. and Werner, J., editors, The Visual Neurosciences, pages 592-680. The MIT Press.

Casanova, C., Savard, T., and Darveau, S. (1997). Contribution of area 17 to cell responses in the striaterecipient zone of the cat’s lateral posterior-pulvinar complex. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9(5):1026-1036.

Chan, L.K.S., & Robinson, G.L.W. (1989).  The effects of comprehension monitoring instruction for reading disabled students with and without tinted lenses.  Australian Journal of Special Education, 13, 4-13.

Chan, L.K.S., & Robinson, G.L.W. (1990).  The effects of poor readers responsiveness to metacognition instruction in comprehension.  Department of Education, University of Newcastle, Australia.

Chang, M., Kim,SH., Kim, JY., Cho, Y. (2014). Specific Visual Symptoms and Signs of Meares-Irlen Syndrome in Korean. Korean J Ophthalmol;28(2):159-163. 

Chase, C.H. (1996).  A visual deficit model of developmental dyslexia.  In C.H. Chase, G.D. Rose, & G.F. Sherman (eds.), Developmental dyslexia: neural, cognitive, and genetic mechanisms (pp. 127-156). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Chase, C., Dougherty, R., Ray, N.m, Fowler, S., & Stein, J. (2007). L/M Speed-Matching Ratio Predicts Reading in Children. Optometry and Vision Science, 84(3), pp. 229-236.

Chase, C.H., & Jenner, A. (1993).  Magnocellular processing deficits affect temporal processing of dyslexics.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 326-330.

Chase, C., Ashourzadeh, A., Kelly, C., Monfette, S., & Kinsey, K. (2003).  Can the magnocullular pathway read? Evidence from studies of colour.  Vision Research, 43, 1211-1222.

Chase, C., Tosha, C., Borsting, E., & Ridder, W.H. (2009). Visual Discomfort and Objective Measures of Static Accommodation. Optometry and Vision Science, 86(7), Pages 883-889.

Chelva, E., Collins, D.W.K., Levy, R.L., & McLaren, T.L. (1987).  Preliminary electrophysical testing of subjects with prescribed Irlen tinted lenses.  Dept. Biophysics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. Paper presented at the Dyslexia Research Foundation Seminar, Perth, W.A.

Cheng, A., Eysel, U., & Vidyasagar, T. (2004).  The role of the magnocellular pathway in serial deployment of visual attention.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 20(8), 2188-2192.

Chouinard, B.D., Zhou, C.I., Hrybouski, S., Kim, E.S., Cummine, J. (2012). A functional neuroimaging case study of Meares-Irlen syndrome/visual stress (MISViS) Brain Topography, 25 (3), pp. 293-307. 

Chronicle, E.P., & Wilkins, A.J. (1991)  Colour and visual discomfort in migraineurs.  The Lancet, 338, 890.

Clay, M.M., & Imlach, R.H. (1971).  Juncture, pitch and stress as reading behaviour variables.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 10, 133-139.

Colson, D. (2000). Thanks to Woman’s World, my son can finally read.  Woman’s World, March 14, 3.

Conlon, E. (2000).  Visual Perceptual Problems in Reading: Their relationship to reading disability and neural processing.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Conlon, E.G. ; Sanders, M.A., & Wright, C.M. (2009). Relationships between global motion and global form processing, practice, cognitive and visual processing in adults with dyslexia or visual discomfort.Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 907-915.

Conlon, E. ; Sanders, M. (2011). The reading rate and comprehension of adults with impaired reading skills or visual discomfort. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(2), 193-214.

Cotton, M.M., & Evans, K.M. (1990).  An evaluation of Irlen Lenses as a treatment for specific reading disorders.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 42, 1-12.

Cotton, M.M., & Evans, K.M. (1994).  Parents and children’s expectations about Irlen (tinted) lenses. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 1387-1390.

Coutts, L. Cooper, C.E., Elwell, C.E., & Wilkins, A.J. (2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Cephalalgia32(8) 621–629.

Coyle, Barbara (1955).  Use of filters to treat visual-perception problem creates adherents and skeptics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 152(5) 749-750.

Crabtree, E. (2011). Educational implications of Meares-Irlen syndrome. British Journal of School Nursing, Vol. 6, Iss. 4, 13 May 2011, pp 182 – 187.

Creedon, M.P.,  & Reese, M.  Attention and perceptual skills of students with autism using Irlen coloured filters.  Unpublished manuscript. Hospital & Medical Center, Chicago.

Croyle, L., (1998).  Rate of reading, visual processing, colour and contrast.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 13-21.

Croyle, M., & Solman R. (1996). Vision, reading and colour.  Presentation to 20th Annual conference of Australian Association of Special Education.

Croyle, L., Elliott, R., & Dain, S. (1997).  Reading, visual processing, colour and contrast.  (Unpublished manuscript, University of New South Wales, Australia)


Davis, M., & Dodds, S. (1986).  New Hope for Dyslexics.  New Texas, February/March 5.

Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., Best, M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998).  Psychophysical evidence for magnocellular pathway deficit in dyslexia.  Vision Research, 28, 1555-1559.

Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998).  Functional magnetic resonance imaging of early visual pathways in dyslexia.  Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 6939-6951.

Di Lollo, V., Hanson, D., & McIntyre, J.S. (1983).  Initial stages of visual information processing in dyslexia.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 923-925.

Drew, S.A., Borsting, E., Stark, L.R., & Chase, C. (2012). Chromatic Aberration, Accommodation, and Colour Preference in Asthenopia Optometry and Vision Science, 89(7), E1059-E1067.

Dusek, W., Pierscionek, B.K., & McClelland, J.F.  (2010.) A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties. BMC Ophthalmology, 10(1), 16.


Eames, T.H. (1957). The relationship of the central visual field to the speed of visual perception. American Journal of Opthalmology, 43, 279-280.

Eden, G.F., VanMeter, J.W., Rumsey, J.M., Maisog, J.M., Woods, R.P., & Zeffiro, T.A. (1996).  Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging.  Nature, 382, 66-69.

Edwards, V.T., Hogben, J.H., Clark, C.D., & Pratt, C. (1996). Effects of a red background on magnocullular functioning in average and specifically disabled readers.  Vision Research, 36(7) 1037-1045.

Ekenna-Kalu, C., Fatolitis, P., Momen, N., Haseltine, C., Temme, L., Krouse., S. (2006). Meares-Irlen Syndrome Innovation Study: Assessment of the potential for coloured overlays to enhance the reading skills of listed recruits (Navy). Report by the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (NAMRL), July, 2006.

Evans, B. (1994). The relationship between optometric problems, visual discomfort and reading difficulties.  Optician, 5436(207), 18-22.

Evans, B.J., Cook, A., Richards, I.L., & Drasdo, N. (1994).  Effect of pattern glare and colour overlays on a simulated reading task in dyslexics and normal readers.  Optometry and Vision Science, 71, 619-628.

Evans, Bruce J.W., & Joseph, Florence (2002).  The effect of coloured filters on the rate of reading in an adults student population.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 535-545.

Evans, B.J.W., Patel, R., Wilkins, A.J., Lightstone, A., Eperjesi, F., Speedwell, L., & Duffy, J. (1999). A review of the management of 323 consecutive patients seen in a specific learning disabilities clinic. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 19(6), 454-466.

Evans, B.J.W., & Stevenson, S.J. (2008) The Pattern Glare Test: A review and determination of normative valuesOphthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28 (4), pp. 295-309.

Evans, B. J. W., Wilkins, A. J., Brown, J., Busby, A., Wingfield, A., Jeanes, R., & Bald, J. (1996). A preliminary investigation into the aetiology of Meares-Irlen syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 16(4), 286-296.

Evans, B. J. W., Wilkins, A. J., Busby, A., & Jeanes, R. (1996). Optometric characteristics of children with reading difficulties who report a benefit from coloured filters. In C. M. Dickinson, I. J., Murray, & D. Garden (Eds.), John Dalton’s colour legacy (pp. 709-715). London : Taylor and Francis.


Faraci, M.E. (2009). Does the Irlen Method Bring about an Increase in Reading Scores on a Specific Test of Reading for Students Found to Have Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome? Doctoral Dissertation. ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego.

Fisher, D.F., & Shebliske, W.L. (1985).  There is more that meets the eye than the eye mind assumption.  In R. Corner, G.W. McConkie, & C. Menz. (Eds.).  Eye Movements and Human Information processing. (pp149-157)  B.V. (North Holland): Elsevier Science Publishers.

Fletcher, J., & Martinez, G. (1994).  An eye movement analysis of the effects of Scotopic sensitivity correction on parsing and comprehension.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 67-70.

Floyd, R.A., Dain, S.J., Elliott, R.T. (2004). Is the perception of brightness different in poor readers?  School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney. Australia. Vision Research, Jan: 44(2), 221-7.

Foorman, B.R., & Liberman, B.R. (1989).  Visual and phonological processing of words: a comparison of good and poor readers.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 349-355.

Franklin, A., & Sowden, P. (2011). Colour and autism spectrum disorders. In C.P. Biggam (Ed.) New direction in Colour Studies (pp. 281-292). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.

Fricker, S. (1989).  Do Irlen coloured glasses improve stereopsis and reading ability in children who have reading difficulties caused by visual perceptual distortion when they look at black print on white paper, and does their colour vision differ from the normal population?  Unpublished Diploma of Community Child Health Thesis, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.


Geaney, E., McGeady, M., McMahon, T., Mahon, D., & Mullaney, P. (1991).  Eyes, filters and reading. A pilot study.  Report compiled from a pilot project conducted at Royal Victoria Eye Hospital, Adelaide Road, Dublin 2 and at the Irlen Centre, Palmerstown, Dublin 20.

Geiger, G., & Lettvim, J. (1987).  Peripheral vision in persons with dyslexia.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 20, 1238-1243.

Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.N., Pearson, C.R., Pidgeon, K.J., Hannell, G., Fitzgerald, B.A., Kortman, J.Y., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989).  Tinted lenses and dyslexics: A controlled study.  Australian & New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 17, 137-141.

Good, P.A., Taylor, R.H., Ophth, F.C., & Mortimer M.J., (1991).  The use of tinted glasses in childhood migraine.  Headache, September. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital, Church Street, Birmingham, B3 2NS, England. Reprint requests to: Mr. P. A. Good.

Goodman, K.S., & Gollasch, E.V. (1980).  Word omissions: deliberate and nondeliberate.  Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 6-30.

Grandin, T. (2013). My experience with visual thinking and sensory oversensitivity: the need for research on sensory problems. In M.A. Just and K.A. Pelphrey (Eds.), Development and Brain Systems in Autism (pp. 3-12). New York, NY: Taylor & Frances.

Gray, J. (1999).  Visual perceptual difficulties and reading behaviour: Irlen syndrome and eye colour.  Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.

Gregg, P.J. (1989).  Dyslexia and tinted filters.  The Optician, January 29, 17-20.

Griffin, D.C., Walton, N.H., & Ives, V. (1974).  Saccades as related to reading disorders.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7, 310-316.

Grosser, G.S., & Spafford, C.L. (1989).  Perceptual evidence for and anomalous distribution of rods and cones in the retinas of dyslexics: a new hypothesis.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 683-698.

Grosser, G.S., & Spafford, C.S. (1990).  Light sensitivity in peripheral retinal fields of dyslexic and proficient readers.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 467-477.

Gustafson, S., Samuelsson, S., & Ronnberg, J. (1997).  Phonological training and reading skills: why do some resist?  In B. Ericson & J. Ronnberg (Eds.), Reading disability and its treatment, Norrkoping, Sweden: Eve Malmquist Institute for Reading.  Pp. 38-51.


Haag, S.R. (1984).  The IDPS children’s form: a validity study. Unpublished Master of Science thesis, California State University, Long Beach.

Hailey, D., & Lea, A.  (1992).  Irlen Lenses and the Reading Disabled.  The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities. 2. (1). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra. 40-48.

Hannell G., Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.M., Rooney, F., Pidgeon, K.J., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989.  Reading improvement with tinted lenses:  A report of two cases.  Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 72, 170-176.

Hazell, P, (2000).  Still Going.  Hyperactivity Enters its Second Century.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia 5-8 July, 2000

Hobbs, M. (1994).  A study on the prevalence of vision problems and Irlen syndrome among students “At Risk”.  Unpublished manuscript.  Study conducted in New Zealand.

Hoeft, F., Meyler, A., Hernandez, A., & Juel, C. (2007) Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability.  PNAS, March 6, 2007, 104(10), 4234-4239.

Holland, K.C., Tyrrell, R., & Wilkins, A. (1991).  The effect of Irlen coloured lenses on saccadic eye movements and reading.  Paper presented at the Coloured Spectacles and Reading Difficulties Seminar, London.

Huang, J., Zong, X., Wilkins, A., Jenkins, B., Bozoki, A., Cao, Y. (2011). fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine. Cephalagia, 31(8):925-36. doi: 10.1177/0333102411409076. Epub 2011 May 26 . 

Hulme, C., & Hogben, M.J. (1997).  How does a visual transient deficit affect reading? In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: biology, cognition and intervention.  London, UK: Whurr.  59-70.


Inghersoll, B., & Goldstein, S. (1993).  Attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities: Realities, myths, and controversial treatments.  Doubleday.

Iovino, I., Fletcher, J.M., Breitmeyer, B.F., & Foorman, B.R. (1998). Coloured overlays for visual perceptual deficits in children with reading disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are they differentially effective? Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(6) 791-806.

Irlen, H. (1991a).  Reading by the colours.   New York: Avery.

Irlen, H. (1991b).  Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome: screening manual.  Long Beach, CA: Perceptual Development Corporation.

Irlen, H. (1983, August).  Successful treatment of Learning Disabilities.  Paper presented at the 91stAnnual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim California.

Irlen, H. (1987).  Irlen Differential Perceptual Schedule.  Long Beach, California:  Perceptual Development Corporation.

Irlen, H. (1994).  Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome – Hypothesis and Explanation of the Syndrome. Journal of Behavioural Optometry, 5, 62-65.

Irlen, H. (1994). Dyslexia in higher education: strategies and the value of asking.  Paper presented at the Dyslexia in Higher Education International Conference, 31 October – 2 November, Devon, UK

Irlen, H. (1996).  Dyslexia in higher education: Learning along the continuum.  The Information Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 1, 44-48.

Irlen, H. (1997). Reading problems and Irlen coloured lenses.  Dyslexia Review, 8(3), 4-7.

Irlen, H. (2000).  Looking beyond the printed page.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Irlen. H. (2010). The Irlen Revolution: A Guide to Changing Your Perception and Your Life. New York: Square One Publishers.

Irlen, H. (2011). Factors that would account for lack of immediate change. Rebuttal to Irlen Coloured Overlays Do not Alleviate Reading Difficulties by Stuart J. Ritchie, Sergio Della Sala, and Robert D. McIntosh in Paediatrics, 128(4) e932-e938; published ahead of print September 19, 2011, doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0314

Irlen, H. (2012). A sensory intervention for visual processing deficits using precision coloured filters. Autism Science Digest: The Journal of AutismOne, 04, 94-102.

Irlen, H., & Lass, M.J. (1989).  Improving reading problems due to symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome using Irlen lenses and overlays.  Education, 30, 1-5.

Irlen, H., & Robinson, G.L. (1996). The effect of Irlen coloured filters on adult perception of workplace performance: a preliminary survey.  Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 1, 7-17.

Irvine, J.H., & Irvine, E.W. (1997).  Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome in a single individual (a case study).  Report by the Naval Air Warfare Centre, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, April 1997.


Jang, Y.G. (2013). Implementation of Virtual Coloured Overlays in Mobile Devices for People with Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome. IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.13 No.4, April 2013. 

Jang, Y. G. (2014). Mobile Coloured Overlays for People with Visual Stress. International Journal of Multimedia & Ubiquitous Engineering, 9(6). 

Jang, Y. G. (2014). Mobile Coloured Overlay and Application to Korean WRRT. Life Science Journal11(7).

Jeanes, R., Busby, A., Martin, J., Lewis, E., Stevenson, N., Pointon, D., & Wilkins, A. (1997).  Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading.  Journal of Psychology, 88, 531-548.

Jennings, G.D.J., & Underwood, G. (1984). The influence of parafoveal information on a simple reading task.  In A.G. Gale & F. Johnson (Eds.). Theoretical and applied aspects of eye movement research, (pp179-185). B.V. (North Holland): Elsevier Science Publishers.

Johannes, S., Kussmaul, C.L., Muente, T.F., & Mangun, R. (1996). Developmental dyslexia: passive visual stimulation provides no evidence for a magnocellular processing defect. Neuropsychologia, 34, 1123-1127.

Johnson, P.J., Saba, G., Dorain, E., Belmont, S. (2000).  A Study to test the effectiveness of reading with Irlen coloured overlays for students with Irlen/Scotopic sensitivity syndrome.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

Jordan, D. (1972).  Dyslexia in the classroom.  Columbus, OH: Merrill

Jordan, I. (1998). Visual dyslexia: a guide for parents and teachers.  United Kingdom: Desktop Publications.

Juel C., (1988).  Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.

Juel, C., Griffith, P., & Gough, P. (1986).  Acquisitions of literacy:  A longitudinal study of children in 1stand 2nd grade.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 243-255.

Just, M.A., & Carpenter, P.A. (1980).  A  theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87, 329-354.


Kavale, K. (1982).  Meta-analysis of the relationship between visual perceptual skills and reading achievement.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 42-51.

Kiani, R. & Miller, H. (2010). Sensory impairment and intellectual disability. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16, 228-235.

Kim, S., & Cho, Y. (2010). Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Dyslexia in Korea : Correlation With Meares-Irlen Syndrome. J Korean Ophthalmology Soc. 2010 Dec; 51(12):1639-1642. Korean. Published online 2010 December 21. 

Kirby, J.R., & Williams, N.H. (1991).  Learning problems: A cognitive approach.  Toronto, Canada: Kagan & Woo.

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Tuettemann, E. (August 1986).  The use of tinted lenses in the treatment of reading disabilities.  Education Department Perth Western Australia.

Twine, S. (1989). Coloured Glass for All to See?  Australian Institute of Learning Disabilities and The Dyslexia Research Foundation of Australia,  Perth Western Australia.

Tyrrell, R., Holland, K., Dennis, D., & Wilkins, A. (1995).  Coloured overlays, visual discomfort, visual search and classroom reading.  Research in Reading, 18, 10-23.


Valdois, S., Gerard, C., Vanault, P., & Dugas, M. (1995).  Perceptual developmental dyslexia: a visual attentional account?  Cognitive Neuropsychology, 12, 31-67.

Vidal-López, J. (2011) The role of attributional bias and visual stress on the improvement of reading speed using coloured filters Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112 (3), pp. 770-782.


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Warmington, M., Stothard, S.E., & Snowling, M.J. (2012) Assessing dyslexia in higher education: the York adult assessment battery-revisedJournal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012. 

Westgard, S. (1993).  Colour me literate: The effect of Irlen coloured lenses on visual perceptual distortion.  Unpublished M.Ed. project Northwest Nazarene College, USA.

Whichard, J.A., Feller, R.W., & Kastner, R. (2000). The Incidence of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome in Colorado Inmates.  Journal of Correctional Education, 51(3), 294-299.

Whiteley, H.E., & Smith, C.D. (2001). The Use of Tinted Lenses to Alleviate Reading Difficulties.  Journal of Research in Reading, 24(1), 30-40.

Whiting, P. (1985).  How difficult can reading be?  New insight into reading problems.  Journal of the English Teachers Association, 49, 49-55.

Whiting, Paul R. (1988). Improvements in Reading and Other Skills Using Irlen Coloured Lenses. Australian Journal of Remedial Education. 20(1), 13-15.

Whiting, P.R. (1992).  Coloured lenses.  What do we know now? Australia SPELD News, December 1992.

Whiting, P. (1995).  Visual aspects of dyslexia.  The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 2(1), 13-35.

Whiting, P.R. (2000).  Assessment for dyslexia.  Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July, 2000.

Whiting, P., & Robinson, G.L. (1988).  Using Irlen coloured lenses for reading:  A clinical study. Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 5, 7-10.

Whiting, P.R., & Robinson, G.L.  (2001).  The interpretation of emotion from facial expressions for children with a visual sub-type of dyslexia.  Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6,(4), 6-14.

Whiting, P., Robinson, G.L., & Parrot, C.F. (1994).  Irlen coloured filters for reading: a six year follow up. Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 26, 13-19.

Wilkins, A. (1993).  Overlays for classroom and optometric use.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 14.

Wilkins, Arnold (2002). Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 448-454.

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Wilkins, A.J., & Evans, B.J.W. (2010) Visual stress, its treatment with spectral filters,  and its relationship to visually induced motion sickness Applied Ergonomics, 41(4), 509-515.

Wilkins, A.J., Evans, B.J.W., Brown, J.A., Busby, A.E., Wingfield, A.E., Jeanes, R.J., & Bald, J. (1994).  Double-masked placebo-controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays.  Ophthalmological & Physiological Optics, 14, 365-370.

Wilkins, A.J., Huang, J., & Cao, Y. (2004).  Visual stress theory and its application to reading and reading tests.  Journal of research in Reading, 27(2), 152-162.

Wilkins, A.J., Jeanes, R.J., Pumfrey, P.D., & Laskier, M. (1996).  Rate of reading test: its reliability and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays.  Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 16, 491-497.

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Wilkins, A.J., Lewis, E., Smith, F., Rowland, E., & Tweedie, W. (2001).  Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading.  Journal of Research in reading, 24(1), 41-64.

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Wilkins, A.J., Nimmo-Smith, I., & Jansons, J.E. (1992).  Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion.  Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 12(3), 381-385.

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International Publications

Hinweis: Ausbildung zum Irlen Screener/zur Irlen Screenerin: Nächster Termin: Freitag/Samstag 30./31. Januar 2015 in Dornach Schweiz Bei Interesse rasche Kontaktaufnahme erwünscht.  Kurstage 1 und 2 (Theoretische Grundlagen und Praxis) Tag: Fallbesprechungen. Termin nach Vereinbarung

Hinweis auf Publikationen:

Steiner Fritz, HWS-Distorsion (Schleudertrauma)/Schädel-Hirn-Trauma und visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörungen, in Optometrie, Fachpublikation für Augenoptik, Offizielles Organ der Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung für Augenoptik und Optometrie e. V. (WVAO), Mainz, 2011/2

Steiner Fritz, Irlen Methode, in Urwyler Markus (Hrsg.),Schleudertrauma, Gefangen im Schmerz oder Beginn eines neuen Lebens?, Verlag Metacentre, Paulusdruckerei Fribourg, 2011

Steiner Fritz, Autismus Spektrum Störung und visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörungen, Möglichkeiten der Irlen Methode in – “autismus contact” Fachdokumentation von und für Eltern und Fachleute, autismus deuschte schweiz, Zürich, überarbeitete Fassung, 2014

Viviane Perrenoud, Autisme et problématique visuelle, quel soutien dans les activités scolaires?, Memoire professionnel présenté à UER pédagogie spécialisée de la HEP VD pour l‘optention du certificat du Cycle d‘étude Avencées en „Déficits visuels, 2011

Susanne Hottiger-Müller, Farbige Gläser verändern die Welt: IRLEN-Syndrom und Selbstkonzept, Akademiker Verlag, 2014, ISBN: 978-3-639-46915-8  (erhältlich im Buchhandel)

Neu! AUTISMUS DEUTSCHE SCHWEIZ – “autismus contact” Fachdokumentation von und für Eltern und Fachleute, 2014, überarbeitete Fassung

Hanspeter Michel, Optometrist, IRLEN Syndrom – eine visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörung, in Optometrie, Fachpublikation für Augenoptik, Offizielles Organ der Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung für Augenoptik und Optometrie e. V. (WVAO), Mainz, Optometrie 2/2014

Safra Doris,  Der Struwwelpeter: Ein Reizüberflutungssyndrom, in Ophta, Schweizerische Fachzeitschrift für augenärztliche Medizin und Technologie, ophta • 3 / 2014

Hanspeter Michel, Optometrist, Eine visuelle Wahrnehmungsstörung, in Schweizer Optiker, Offizielles Organ des Schweizer Optikverbandes (SOV) und des Schweizerischen Berufsverbandes für Augenoptik und Optometrie,  9/2014, Luzern

 books sports concussions


Irlen Syndrome Affects:

  • 12-14% of the general population
  • 46% of individuals with reading and learning difficulties
  • 33% with ADHD
  • 33% with autism
  • 55% with head injury, concussion or whiplash


Irlen is supported by over 30 years of scientific research. Read the research now.